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2006a, b). P. glandulosa var. P. glandulosa, like most Prosopis taxa, has a chromosome number of n=14 (2n=28). Arid Land Research and Management, 28(2):216-231. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uasr20, Tewari JC, Harris PJC, Harsh LN, Cadoret K Pasiecznik NM, 2000. 2011; Wilson et al. It can fix Nitrogen. This has led to the establishment of even-aged Prosopis stands. Seed Technology, 27(2):230-239, Geesing D, Felker P, Bingham RL, 1999. Mature mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. In Australia and South Africa, the spread of P. glandulosa and related species followed periods of high rainfall (Zimmerman, 1991; Csurhes, 1996), possibly due to improved conditions for germination and establishment or increased water dispersion of the seed. The long and widely spaced leaflets of P. glandulosa var. P. glandulosa is principally a weed of grasslands both in the native ranges in Mexico and the USA, and where introduced and widespread in parts of Australia and South Africa. Changes in legislation, and the promotion of Prosopis use, helped drive the substantial rise in use and led to 100 % of the locals in one village supporting control through utilization as the most preferred management method to adopt in Kenya (Njoroge et al. This paper presents a global review of Prosopis, focusing on its distribution, impacts, benefits and approaches to management. Flowering times vary between species and sites and are genetically controlled. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Although very large numbers of flowers are produced, not all are fertile (Solbrig and Cantino, 1975) and high rates of ovary abortion are found. 2014). 2012). However, Reddy (1978) gives a compelling account of the request for Prosopis seed made by Lt. Col. R.H. Bedome, Conservator of Forests of Northern Circle (Madras) to the Secretary of the Revenue Department of Madras in 1876: "The Prosopis dulcis, the Prosopis pubescens and P. glandulosa - are stated to grow best on dry arid soil. African Entomology, 20(2):281-291. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa, Mooney HA, Simpson BB, Solbrig OT, 1977. provided specialist taxonomic advice and management information. The case studies are also characteristic of management strategies driven and implemented by different stakeholders, e.g. The thorns also cause personal injury. Mohan (1940, in Raizada and Chatterji, 1954) reported the introduction of P. glandulosa var. Although they were all called P. juliflora, they almost certainly contained P. velutina and varieties of P. glandulosa. One Kenyan community has even taken the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the Kenyan government to court over the harm created by the introduction of Prosopis (Pasiecznik et al. 2011). Honey Mesquites (Prosopis glandulosa) are a good source of wild food. For extensive lists of the numerous species of insect visitors, pollinators or seed-eating beetles of P. glandulosa, refer to Kingsolver et al. In providing these habitat components, such desert scrub trees allow an increase in plant density and richness in the community as a whole. ; [Also available in Arabic]; 38 ref. Australia and Ascension Island are the only counties/territories to have strategic plans for Prosopis management and countries with long-standing Prosopis control programmes such as South Africa and Kenya still do not. [Resultados tras 25 años de un ensayo de reforestación de zonas semiáridas, y el riesgo de introducción de especies exóticas] Zonas Âridas, 16(1):52-71, Pasiecznik NM, 1989. and D.M.R. 2013). Galactomannan seed gums from P. glandulosa have also been shown to be superior in quality to commonly used guar gum, with much potential for use in the food industry (Martínez-Ávila et al., 2014). Pods have a high sugar content, are low in anti-feedants, and are widely sought after by a variety of animals. The following description is adapted from Burkart (1976).P. Country-specific strategic plans need to be created as there are large differences in invasion rates and scales and socio-economic situations within different areas of the world. Prosopis glandulosa . © Copyright 2020 CAB International. constricta Sarg. If the soil is too dry, the stem breaks leading to coppicing, if too wet, the soil and understorey is damaged (Jacoby and Ansley, 1991). 1557:viii + 115 pp, Wu XB, Archer SR, 2005. Prosopis provides benefits and generates costs which have led to contentious issues surrounding the genus (Fig. 1). However, P. glandulosa does hybridize with sympatric Prosopis species from section Algarobia, and zones of introgression with P. velutina in California, Arizona and New Mexico, USA, contain trees with intermediate foliar characteristics that are difficult to ascribe to one species or the other. A similar situation to that of the south-western USA exists in Australia and South Africa, where P. glandulosa is called the number one scourge of livestock farmers. prostrata. Planting of productive forage species has proved to be economic in several countries, and inter-planting with agricultural crops may be possible on better soils in higher rainfall zones. Journal of Vegetation Science, 25(4):937-946. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1654-1103, Dios VR de, Weltzin JF, Sun W, Huxman TE, Williams DG, 2012. This information is well summarized in Jacoby and Ansley (1991) and forms the basis for evaluating the feasibility of eradication and control. Converting P. glandulosa stands in the USA from 356 trees/ha to 192 trees/ha produced 32.7 m³/ha of woody biomass, of which an estimated 55% was firewood, leaving 18m³/ha of solid wood for use as a timber, from the thinning operation (Cornejo-Oviedo et al., 1992). 4 3-4.20. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 57:217-246, 450-525, CABI, 2005. Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki, Felker P, 1998. Acacia farnesiana, Parkinsonia aculeata). However, increased cover and shelter tends to have positive effects on animals, and a number of wild mammals, birds and even ants have been shown to increase in numbers following invasion by P. glandulosa in its native range. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. The last comprehensive global review of Prosopis distribution listed the presence of taxa in 93 mainland and island/attol countries (Pasiecznik et al. This has led to contentious issues surrounding the genus (Richardson 1998b; van Wilgen and Richardson 2014). Het geslacht bevat ongeveer 45 soorten van doornachtige bomen en struiken die aangetroffen worden in subtropische en tropische regio's van de Amerika's, Afrika, West-Azië en Zuid-Azië.Ze gedijen vaak in droge grond, zijn bestand tegen droogte en ontwikkelen waar mogelijk een extreem diep wortelstelsel. P. glandulosa var. However, there are still critical gaps in our knowledge of its ecology, impacts and how to retain benefits and reduce costs, and a lack of management capacity in many countries. The advantage with bruchids is their observed host specificity, with many species found to feed only on Prosopis, and some only on single species (Kingsolver et al., 1977). For example, countries with limited invasions are more likely to use mechanical and chemical control, whereas those with large-scale invasions are more likely to adopt an integrated approach, as purely mechanical and chemical control becomes too costly (van Klinken et al. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. The losses to the livestock industry solely from P. glandulosa invasion in the southern states of the USA, notably Texas, are counted in many millions of dollars due to the reduction in the availability of forage grasses (Jacoby and Ansley, 1991). Probably the source of much of the Prosopis to arrive in South Africa was the introduction of 23 seed lots from USA/Hawaii and Mexico from 1897 to 1916. Use of Prosopis in Arab/Gulf States, including possible cultivation with saline water in deserts. Populations increased again when funding diminished, but in the mid-1970s the allocation of government funding led to substantial progress with clearing (van Klinken and Campbell 2009). 1983; Dzikiti et al. Prosopis Glandulosa Home Browse Or Filter Technologies Medicine and Health Therapeutics and Pharmaceutics Prosopis Glandulosa. There are also conflicting ideas on the role and success of biological control in Australia and South Africa and further work is needed (Zachariades et al. Another hybrid contains genes from an, as yet, uncertain species but it is thought to be a P. glandulosa x P. laevigata hybrid (Panetta and Carstairs, 1989), and van Klinken et al. Forest Ecology and Management, 94(1/3):37-46, Patch NL, Felker P, 1997. (2016) also introduce the role of native mammals in controlling Prosopis, and that the reduction in their frequency is one of the reasons for the encroachment of P. glandulosa. Prosopis glandulosa var. Details on the approach for the literature review, approaches used for statistical analyses and climate matching are provided in Supporting Information. 2012). Developmental host-specificity of Mozena obtusa (Heteroptera: Coreidae), a potential biocontrol agent for Prosopis species (mesquite) in Australia. Prosopis is a declared weed in all the mainland states and one territory in Australia and has been categorized in accordance with the threats it poses and the corresponding management responses that need to be implemented (van Klinken and Campbell 2009). Middle-income countries most commonly implement integrated management, whereas poor countries predominantly adopt control through utilization for managing Prosopis. government driven with mainly private implementation (Australia), mainly government driven and implemented (South Africa) and government driven with some non-government organization (NGO) and international support (Kenya). Ecological and socio-economic evaluation of the use of Prosopis juliflora for bio-char production in Pakistan, Adoption, use and perception of Australian acacias around the world, The impact of invading alien plants on surface water resources in South Africa: a preliminary assessment, Global plant dispersal, naturalization, and invasion: pathways, modes and circumstances, Invasive species: vectors and management strategies, Value for money? Birds use the trees as perches and nesting sites, and Prosopis species have been identified as important for native and migratory birds within their native range or where they have expanded their natural range into other habitat types. Differentiation of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. Cockerell, Prosopis juliflora var. However, this method is one of the most expensive control treatments and is recommended only on deep soils that have a high potential for subsequent increased forage production (Jacoby and Ansley, 1991). Control of Prosopis first started in 1954 at Mardie Station, Western Australia, and by 1962 a major reduction in Prosopis density had been achieved. UK: SOS Sahel International (UK), Ward CR, O'Brien CW, O'Brien LB, Foster DE, Huddleston EW, 1977. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 66(2):411-417, Ponce-Guevara E, Davidson A, Sierra-Corona R, Ceballos G, 2016. Factors that make many Prosopis species successful invaders include the production of large numbers of seeds that remain viable for decades, rapid growth rates, an ability to coppice after damage (Felker 1979; Shiferaw et al. The stepwise regression revealed that the level of impacts and overall knowledge on Prosopis invasions are key determinants of the presence of management within a country or not. Algarobia (Leguminosae). Washington, DC, USA: US National Academy of Sciences, Schachtschneider K, February EC, 2013. In Sudan, over 90 % of livestock farmers viewed Prosopis as a problem as it became more widespread (Elsidig et al. There has also been extensive natural spread (commonly by means of flood water) and human-assisted spread (livestock trade) into new areas within countries where it is already naturalized and invasive (Van den Berg 2010). These include methods that retain the benefits, but reduce the impacts substantially. 104 pp. Prosopis is een geslacht in de vlinderbloemenfamilie (Fabaceae). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. The control through utilization approach is motivated around local development (which is needed) more so than managing invasions at large spatial and temporal scales. Separation of the two varieties where introduced, is however, not always evident. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Most of the literature comes from a handful of countries (Australia, India, Kenya, South Africa, USA), and research in other areas is needed since each region has its own set of factors that drive invasions and complicate management. Recruitment of Prosopis seedlings is prevented, or very much reduced, under the crown of mature Prosopis trees (Simpson, 1977). 2012). http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/bw/bw-nr-04-en.pdf. Prosopis spp. which create 'islands of succession'. prostrata is similar in foliar and floral morphology to var. (1977) and Johnson (1983). The detrimental effects on the environment and human livelihoods are escalating rapidly and there is an urgent need to devise more effective management approaches to drastically reduce adverse impacts and enhance benefits. and numerous island/atoll countries and overseas territories (Comoros, Malta, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, etc.) These efforts were continued by the government's forestry department and forestry research organization (KEFRI) following the end of these projects. Brittonia. Chaining involves pulling a heavy chain between two slow moving Caterpillar tractors, with the effect of pulling over and uprooting larger trees. The Prosopis juliflora is a species growing in Jamaica which I should be very glad to get seed of". In Australia it was found that dense stands of hybrid P. glandulosa var. Patch NL, Felker P, 1997. Naturalized taxa are alien taxa that are self-sustaining. Clearly focused research and strategic planning is needed to improve management, reduce costs and improve benefit flows. It is also reported as invasive in other southern African countries, notably Botswana and Namibia where it is known to hybridise with P. velutina, also in Australia, though P. glandulosa tends to dominate. Several species are also weedy and thus provide both benefits and costs in their native ranges (P. affinis, P. caldenia, P. campestris, P. chilensis, P. cineraria, P. farcta, P. glandulosa, P. hassleri, P. humilis, P. juliflora, P. kuntzei, P. nigra, P. pubescens, P. ruscifolia, P. strombulifera, P. tamarugo, P. velutina) [see Supporting Information]. Countries with a good understanding of Prosopis based on the number of publications and the diversity of published materials have a higher chance of having some form of management, and in general this takes the form of integrated management. They alter ecosystem services such as water supply, hydrological functioning, grazing potential and soil quality (DeLoach 1984; Bedunah and Sosebee 1986; Archer 1989; Le Maitre et al. Peinetti R, Pereyra M, Kin A, Sosa A, 1993. 2012). 2004) are given in brackets: N, naturalized; I, invasive; NA, native; W, weedy; U, unknown. This was sent to the Secretary of State and seeds arrived and were sown that same year and outplanted in 1878 (Reddy, 1978). We review the literature and collate data from many sources. Coventry, UK: International Research Department, HDRA, 29 pp, Patch NL, Felker P, 1997. Prosopis has invaded over one million hectares and could potentially spread over 70 % of Australia's land area (Osmond 2003). It is generally found in areas where water and soil fertility are the principal agents limiting plant growth, and is able to survive, and even thrive, on some of the poorest land, unsuitable for any other tree species. 2011). Ecoscience, 2:83-99, Benson L, 1941. In Yemen there is no evidence that the non-native A. prosopis feeds on the native Prosopis cineraria (Al-Shurai and Labrada 2006). Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Control by utilisation is increasingly being promoted as the best means to impact upon Prosopis invasions, and Fredrickson et al. PLoS ONE, 11(5):e0154748. P. glandulosa is able to survive in areas with exceptionally low annual rainfall or very lengthy dry periods but only if roots are able to tap ground water or another permanent water source within the first few years, or if sufficient atmospheric moisture is available as in many coastal desert areas with persistent trade winds or seasonal fog. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10:186-188, Pasiecznik NM, Felker P, Harris PJC, Harsh LN, Cruz G, Tewari JC, Cadoret K, Maldonado LJ, 2001. Results indicated that tree density and harvesting costs are major factors affecting cost of delivered biomass, but that electricity production is a viable option for managing areas invaded by P. glandulosa (Park et al., 2012). Prosopis Glandulosa. Natural Resources, 4:496-505, Muzila M, Setshogo MP, Moseki B, Morapedi R, 2011. The increased movement of humans around the world has facilitated transportation of many species to environments far from their native ranges. Prosopis juliflora, the precocious child of the plant world. This could include regulations on livestock and fodder transport which is currently implemented in Australia (Australian Weeds Committee 2012). Perceptions on the benefits and costs of invasive alien species are strongly influenced by invasion abundance (Binggeli 2001; Shackleton et al. 2004). These species, which would be rare or absent without the presence of trees and shrubs such as Prosopis, in turn contribute to the support of other trophic levels by providing food sources (leaves, flowers and fruits) for desert scrub animals". Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press, Jenkins MB, Virginia RA, Jarrell WM, 1987. However, despite many reports showing how much monetary benefit Prosopis has provided, there is no information on how successful this approach is for controlling Prosopis invasions. Climate matching was used to assess areas of potential naturalization and invasion (Peel et al. var. Prosopis is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae.It contains around 45 species of spiny trees and shrubs found in subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas, Africa, Western Asia, and South Asia. Alien taxa are those whose presence in an area is attributable to introduction by humans. The following Supporting Information is available in the online version of this article –. P. glandulosa var. introduced into South Africa for biological control of mesquite weeds (Prosopis spp.). Although 2,4-D provided excellent suppression of top growth, few trees were actually killed and such chemical treatments had to be applied periodically to ensure that forage yields were maintained. Tt 99/98. 2012). Total tree kill may be possible with some treatments, but adequate techniques for preventing the re-introduction of seeds and re-establishment of trees have yet to be developed. 20 December 2011 Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Being adapted to arid and semi-arid climates, P. glandulosa generally germinates and establishes during the brief rainy season and seedlings must be sufficiently well established to survive the first dry season. A similar situation arose in Kenya where, as Prosopis became invasive, it was described as a ‘bad omen’ by some local people (Choge and Chikamai 2004) and more than 65 % of people in three villages mentioned that their lives would have been better off if Prosopis was never introduced (Maundu et al. Smaller, unbroken trees have to be removed by other means. P. glandulosa has been widely introduced and planted as a fuel and fodder tree. Initial misidentification without correction can be repeated continually leading many foresters and researchers to believe that a certain leaf and tree morphology is characteristic of one species when it can be seen by a trained eye to clearly belong to another. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 23(3):639-648, Bessega C, Saidman BO, Vilardi JC, 2005. Such reviews have been useful for guiding and prioritizing management and improving knowledge in other groups of woody invasive plants (Richardson and Rejmánek 2004, 2011; Kull et al. The ‘usefulness’ of Prosopis has led to the large-scale introduction of five species in particular (P. chilensis, P. glandulosa, P. juliflora, P. pallida and P. velutina) and the subsequent naturalization and invasion of these taxa and their hybrids leading to the provision of benefits and costs in their new ranges [see Supporting Information]. Of the species of beetles found to feed on the pods of native American Prosopis, 93% were obligately restricted to Prosopis, showing a high degree of specialisation. Journal of Range Management, 54(5):553-560; 39 ref, Teague WR, Dowhower SL, Ansley RJ, Baker SA, Waggoner JA, Ransom RD, 2014. 2004). Flora of the Sudan. Noxious Range Weeds. It was recently recognized that P. pallida, which was seen as not being as invasive as other species, is more widespread than originally thought as it was misidentified as P. juliflora in Africa (Pasiecznik et al. Three seed-feeding beetles (A. prosopis, A. bottimeri and Neltumius arizonensis) were introduced as biological control agents to try and reduce spread while maintaining its benefits (Zimmermann 1991; Coetzer and Hoffmann 1997). 9. The closer-spaced leaflets of P. glandulosa var. Mesquite: Its Biology in Two Desert Ecosystems. glandulosa). There are concerns, however, that introduced insects could affect less invasive P. pallida populations in these areas that are utilized by local communities (Pasiecznik et al. 2001). Isozymic discrimination of tropical Australian populations of mesquite (Prosopis spp. For accurate assessment, molecular techniques must be applied, and this will clarify the taxonomic confusion in coming years, and a further revision of the genus is to be expected. Boletin Divulgativo, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Mexico, 63, Peacock JT, McMillan C, 1965. This section highlights key management and research issues that need to be addressed to improve Prosopis control and the factors that currently constrain progress in these areas (Fig. 7). In the southern states of the USA, Australia and South Africa, some livestock farmers have been forced to abandon their ranches due to P. glandulosa invasion with resulting social costs. Rapid invasions of Prosopis have accompanied the arrival and expansion of cattle ranching and its associated effects on the environment (Dahl, 1982). Such national strategies and plans are important to set up frameworks on how to guide Prosopis management and research. The product simultaneously leads to reduced muscle inflammation, which leads to accelerated regeneration. Seed are spread widely by grazing animals from established plantations or single trees around houses or water-holes, and will persist for long periods in the seed bank. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53:36-40, Johnson CD, 1983. Beetles of the family Bruchidae are responsible for destroying a substantial percentage of seeds produced by P. glandulosa in its native range, and dispersal mechanisms may be an evolutionary response to destruction by such insects. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 28(2):277-286, Botswana Government, 2009. honey mesquite. Although the financial costs of eradication are also very high, it was seen for many decades to be rewarded by the increase in stocking densities afforded by control. Seed are spread widely by grazing animals from established plantations or single trees around houses or water-holes, and will persist for long periods in the seed bank. There have been rewarding examples of control success (van Klinken and Campbell 2009); however, Prosopis populations continue to spread in many areas and further management is needed. Hier staan fotos gerangschikt per individu of groep individuen. The level of development of a county, indicated by gross domestic product per capita, also influences the type of management approach a country is likely to adopt. Mexico City, Mexico: Instituto Mexicano de Recursos Naturales, Goslee SC, Havstad KM, Peters DPC, Rango A, Schlesinger WH, 2003. Management strategies differ among countries; developed nations use mainly mechanical and chemical control whereas developing nations tend to apply control through utilization approaches. Logistic regression highlighting the importance of different ecological, economical and social factors in determining management of Prosopis within a country. 2006; Pasiecznik et al. There are still, however, contentious issues surrounding the benefits and costs of the species and management approaches in Kenya (Pasiecznik et al. 152:62-66, Raizada MB, Chatterji RN, 1954. Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania, USA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Simpson BB, Neff JL, Moldenke AR, 1977. All introductions of P. glandulosa around the world have been intentional, for their perceived benefits for fuel and fodder production and their tolerance to extreme drought and inhospitable environments. Prosopis was introduced for many reasons: to provide fodder and shade in the arid areas of South Africa and Australia; for dune stabilization, afforestation and fuel wood supply in Sudan; for live fencing in Malawi; initially to rehabilitate old quarries and later for afforestation and the provision of fuelwood and fodder in Kenya; for fuelwood production and rehabilitating degraded soil in India; for local greening, ornamental cultivation and soil stabilization in many Middle Eastern countries; and for vegetation trials in Spain (Zimmermann 1991; Ghazanfar 1996; Pasiecznik et al. 2003; Chikuni et al. Analysis of the relationships between species of the genus Prosopis revealed by the use of molecular markers. 2006). Water dispersal ensures widespread dissemination of seed during flooding or other high rainfall events when seedling establishment is favoured. [Part 2.]. 1997; Pimentel et al. In South Africa, pods are collected to produce organic medicines (‘manna’) that are said to have properties that stabilize blood sugar levels in humans. Functional Ecology, 7:452-461, Luna RK, 1996. Witt (2010) noted that the prominence and severity of the impacts of Prosopis in developing countries has motivated this investment in research and understanding.

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