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Conversely, wildlife photographers tend to use telephoto lenses because their narrow angle of view allows them to get a close-up shot of the animal, even from a great distance away. It’s a technical term to describe the ‘halo’ of purple/yellow coloring that occurs on the fringe of subjects in macro photos. It’s helpful to know the basic lens sizes that are common for beginners to own and what type of conditions they’re most useful for. Prime lenses in standard lengths are small, lightweight, and offer a lot of speed over other lenses. What is Focal Length Range? Larger numbers indicate a narrower angle of view and higher magnification or zoom. They are sometimes called ‘fixed’ lenses because the focal length is fixed at one distance between the lens and the image sensor to keep the subject in focus. At the wide end, it can open to f/4; on the narrow end, it can only open to f/5.6 (as seen below). 18-55 mm). I can shoot wide-angle shots at 18mm, short telephoto shots at 55mm, and everything in between. Choosing a lens with an aperture of f/4 or larger is best, even if it’s a significant investment. With these family portrait tips, you'll learn a few strategies for taking much-improved Thanksgiving family portraits. Zoom lenses will be printed with the range of focal lengths, but they will also have a focal length guide along part of the zoom ring. Place one of the items near the camera, and the others and distances on the table farther away from the camera. Lenses are identified by two primary parameters; the maximum aperture and focal length. You can check that out for a more thorough look. Nikon’s has been around since 1959. Zoom lenses are named using two numbers which indicate the extremes of the range, for example 18-55mm for a typical kit zoom lens. In this example, the minimum aperture for that lens ranges between f/4.5 and f/5.5, depending on what focal length you’re using. Where zoom lenses have a variable focal length, prime lenses have a fixed focal length. Learning More About Focal Length & Your Lenses, Common Focal Lengths of Lenses & What They Are Used For, for landscape and architecture photography, 14 Tips to Protect Your Camera From Dust and Sand, 33 Common Photography Mistakes and How to Avoid Them. It gives photographers the ability to capture a short focal length, but a wide field of view. That's why landscape photographers often use wide-angle lenses - they have a wide angle of view that allows them to capture more of the scene in the image. We will be identifying all of the major (common) lens mount types, and then some more uncommon or rare lens mounts as well. .cls-99{fill:#000;fill-rule:evenodd} Help Center. A-B mm f/C (e.g. Aperture refers to the size of the opening where light passes through to the sensor. Focal length is the length or distance from the front of the lens to the sensor inside of the camera. Think of the resulting image as being magnified. Budgets for ultra-telephoto lenses vary greatly, but it is possible for a beginner to shop around for an affordable product that will shoot like the pros. Without moving the objects or the camera, take photos with each of your lenses at different focal lengths. In this tutorial, get simple instructions on using a reflector for portraits. Zoom Lenses – For zoom lenses, you’ll see both the minimum focal length and the maximum focal length that can be captured by the lens printed directly on your lens. In this case, depending on the focal length the zoom lens is set at, the maximum aperture will be a range from f/3.5 to f/5.6. Wide Angle Lenses (25 mm or less) – The first type of common lens with some of the shortest focal lengths are wide angle lenses. You might be able to carry a single zoom lens where you'd need a couple of prime lenses to cover the same focal lengths. This refers to the diameter of the end of the lens and is helpful when purchasing filters for the camera. Focus on your focal length . This results in an f-number like f/4, f/8, or f/11. Telephoto Lenses (70 mm or longer)  — Lenses that are 70 mm or longer are known as telephoto lenses. You can carry less camera equipment but still, have a subject in focus at any of those distances. Macro lenses come in short lengths (good for low light, macro, and some portraits) as well as standard macro lenses (shooting about 9-11 inches away from the subject in good lighting) and telephoto macro lenses (shooting up to 2 feet away). However, the effective focal length of that lens is different depending on the camera I use. Some lens specifications like the one for the Xiaomi Mi Note 10 include a number like the “7P lens” spec above. If you’re reading reviews about lens performance from other photographers, be sure you have the exact version as performance and quality may be quite different. If I use it on a crop sensor camera, though, the effective focal length changes to 80mm. It is a dimensionless number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed; increasing the f-number is referred to as stopping down. It's confusing at first, to be sure, but the more you use your lenses and become familiar with these features, the easier it will become to remember it all. Because zooms have a variable focal length, they are more versatile. The GoPro Hero 8 Black has since been replaced with the Hero 9 Black, but it's still a feature-rich action camera with plenty of mods to make it a great camera for you. However, if the digital camera offers some additional wide-angle capabilities and has a minimum 28mm equivalency, then the 10X optical zoom would only have a maximum focal length of 280mm. It’s important to review your manufacturer’s guide to determine compatibility with camera accessories. A camera captures light photons, usually from the visible spectrum for human viewing, but in general could also be from other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. There are other things to know about lenses as well. Along with focal length and maximum aperture, you may find other numbers printed on your lens. Check this out. Super-telephoto/Ultra-telephoto Zoom Lens (greater than 300mm) — If you plan to spend a majority of your time shooting sports and wildlife photography, you may consider investing in an ultra-telephoto lens. These numbers indicate the diameter of the lens, which also tells you the size of filter that would be used with that lens. For SLR cameras, the number and accuracy of autofocus points can also change depending on the maximum aperture of the lens being used, as illustrated above. MM Number. In the latter, it's 58mm. f/2.8). On APS-C cameras, like the Canon 7D, 60D, and Rebels, the sensor has a 1.6x crop factor meaning that the sensor will see a 50mm lens as an 80mm lens – so it kind of gets “zoomed in”. Smaller numbers equate to shorter focal lengths and lower magnification. A familiar moment for beginning photographers:  You’ve opened up your brand new DSLR and are ready to start capturing the world around you. Another aspect of aperture values is that the larger the maximum aperture a lens can achieve, the faster that lens is said to be. Learn more about aperture and f-numbers in the detailed tutorial below by Dylan Bennett: F-numbers are consistent across all lenses, so even if the diameter of the aperture opening is different from one lens to the next, if two lenses are using the same aperture value, both lenses will allow the exact same amount of light into the lens. Light from a far distant object enters the lens as parallel rays. As with image stabilization, every camera manufacturer advertises and markets their own type of silent wave motor. Most photographers start to specialize in lenses that match the types of photography they shoot the most. It's just one of the essential camera parts that allow the camera to capture images. Given how important it is to stop motion in these photos (and the high potential for noise and blur at long distances), it’s often better to choose a slightly shorter focal length if it means you can achieve a higher speed. The wider the lens's angle of view, the larger the area of the scene will be captured. For example, a lens that has a “II” listed at the end of the lens name indicates that it’s the second version of that same lens model. To determine if your lens is a zoom lens or a prime lens, simply look at the focal length numbers on the camera lens. Telephoto lenses allow you to bring the action of these scenes up close in an image. Focal length range will be listed as XX-XX before the letters mm, (e.g. Just one look at a camera lens and it's easy to get overwhelmed. In most cases, wide-angle lenses will give a field of view of 65 degrees or more, giving you more control to get close to a subject without losing elements of the background. Fixed maximum ranges on zoom lenses tend to be more expensive, it’s more common to have an aperture range. look for MACRO printed on your lens for true macro technology. When purchasing telephoto lenses, it’s important to select the most speed for the greatest focal length. While there are lots of numbers and letters on lenses, once you’re familiar with how to read them, it’s easy to know what lens you’re working with and what the lens will do for your photography. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. There’s no common set of letters that are used across brands like Canon, Nikon and Sony to indicate image stabilization in the lens. When purchasing a wide-angle lens, you want to focus on getting as much speed for the most affordable price. There’s also a small subset of wide angle lenses known as ultra-wide angle lenses. To explore the focal length of your camera, try this exercise: Once you’ve done the exercise with stationary objects, move outdoors and attempt the same exercise with an object at a further distance or a landscape. You might also see something like "stabilizer" on your lens. The "mm" letters on a camera lens refer to the focal length in millimeters. Prime lenses have one fixed maximum aperture. However, these still are not interchangeable between brands. When comparing lenses, the two most important numbers are the focal length range and lens speed. Please leave feedback if I helped at all, I know 10mins is a bit for a "quick" video. Angle of view refers to the angle from the middle of the lens (the optical center) to the outer edges of the image that's viewable through the lens. 18-55 mm) or one number 50 mm. Lets look at an 18-55mm lens as an example. Now that you know how to determine the focal length range of a lens and the maximum aperture of your lens, you can understand the basic performance of almost any camera lens. Check your camera’s manual as this may explain your options in more depth. It is what you’ll use to prove that a particular camera or lens belongs to you if you ever need to make an insurance claim or report something stolen. You’ll see different abbreviations for each of the major brands. 50 mm f/1.4) Other methods for expressing this information also exist. So the 1D is the most advanced, professional-grade DSLR … Standard Lenses (35mm to 60 mm) – Lenses that fall between 35 mm and 60 mm focal length are considered ‘standard’ lenses. Lenses that lack zoom functionality (like a portrait lens with a fixed focal length of 35mm) have a single focal length, while zoom lenses use two numbers (like 18-55mm) to indicate the range of a lens’ focal length. All lenses have a maximum aperture printed on them in the f/x.x format. The lens bends these rays inward so they trace out the shape of a cone. That’s why wide-angle lenses have focal lengths ranging from 10-30m… In an earlier article, I offered up an essential guide to prime lenses. What factors go into the cost of a camera lens? The Maximum Aperture Number. There are pricey prime lenses too, although you can get budget prime lenses that perform far better than budget zoom lenses. Along with focal length, you will also find maximum aperture printed on your camera lens. Copyright © 2005 - 2020 PhotographyTalk, Inc. All Rights Reserved, Camera Lens Terms Explained for Beginner Photographers, Sony a7 II Review: A Camera That's Still Got It in 2020, Top 10 Computers Under $500: 2020 Gift Guide Deals, Use These Family Portrait Tips for Better Thanksgiving Photos, Check Out These Smokin' Black Friday Photography Deals. In optics, the f-number of an optical system such as a camera lens is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil ("clear aperture"). The distance from the objects and the perspective of the items are exactly the same. In the case of an aperture range, you’ll find two numbers printed on the lens. Now it's time to get out there and practice! It’s a gold standard for portraits and street photography. If you own a full-frame camera, you won’t be able to use a lens built for a crop sensor camera and vice-versa. Or maybe you're just really into photography and camera equipment and want to fill your brain with gear knowledge. Another factor to take into consideration is the aperture. Another item you may find stamped on your lens is image stabilization technology. These are a sub-set of telephoto lenses that have focal lengths of at least 300-400 mm. Very often you’ll see a shortened notation with no units, of the sort “50/1.4.” In exceptional cases, generally on older lenses, you can also fi… Between wide-angle and telephoto lenses, standard lenses are the best at capturing the same scene as the naked eye. In photography, the aperture of a lens is measured in F-numbers or F-stops and is typically expressed on your lens like the following: F/4.5-5.5. On the side of the lens, you might see AF-MF or A-M, which refers to autofocus or manual focus. To get the best picks of security camera lens, it is important to gain an insight into the CCTV camera lens types and comparison first. Many of these camera accessories are exclusive to the brand of lens and are not interchangeable. A camera lens is a round barrel with several pieces of glass inside. These lenses are specific to Nikon - but the majority of the information relates to all brands/models. Hi my name is Brandon. A few lenses everyone should consider having in their camera bag:  A 50 mm f/1.8 prime lens. Some entry-level lens kit will attempt to sell that your zoom lens functions as a macro. Set up several subjects on a table at different distances across the table. Looking at the image above, you can see that the focal length of that lens is 24-105mm. It's measured on three axes: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal. It’s the best way to learn more about focal length and the lenses you own. 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6) 2. The more light it allows into the lens, the faster the shutter speed I can use. Lens speed or maximum aperture will be listed as some number immediately following the letter f.  (e.g. This is because they have fewer pieces and parts, so light has fewer obstructions to go through to reach the camera's sensor. Therefore, an 18mm lens is quite short; a 200mm lens is quite long. This is an important consideration when choosing a camera lens: even if you do not plan on using a lens at its maximum aperture, this aperture may still help the camera achieve better focus accuracy. Check this list of Adorama Black Friday deals, Amazon Black Friday deals, and much more! Telephoto lenses often have a maximum aperture of f/2.8 to f/5.6. Aperture is measured by dividing the focal length of the lens by the diameter of the aperture opening. If you have zoom lenses, take photos at the minimum and maximum focal lengths as well as use the range guide to take a photo at each of the focal lengths stamped on the side of the lens. There are third-party lenses that are compatible with either Canon or Nikon lenses. What lens do I need? In the one-digit XD range, the higher the model number, the less advanced the camera. Telephoto lenses compress distance, making subjects look closer than they are to the naked eye. For example, the kit lens that came with my first camera is an 18-55mm zoom. Considering these factors will also help you to make sure you’re comparing apples to apples across different lens brands. That means you can use a slower shutter speed when holding the camera with stabilization on than you can if you hold the camera without stabilization. Try small objects like flowers, fruit, children’s toys that are all about the same size. That means that a lens that's shorter than 50mm will produce images with a wider view and images that are longer than 50mm will have a narrower view. In general, the more you zoom the narrower the aperture on the lens. 50 mm or 85 mm). No matter how the lens is designated, somewhere in the middle of it you’ll find a series of numbers, typically in one of the following formats: 1. In looking at the two images of the Tetons above, you can see how the first image has a wider angle of view than the second. Prime lenses—also called fixed lenses—can only capture one focal length. The Panasonic Lumix DMC-ZS100 might be four years old, but it still packs a punch for photographers looking for a feature-rich point-and-shoot camera. Every lens in your kit will have a focal length listed on the lens. They don’t often come in basic lens kits but should be one of the first you consider adding on. "The other notation is an indicator of the type of specialized glass used in the lens," he added, showing me an AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6 ED VR. Zoom lenses can have a fixed maximum or they can have a range of maximum apertures. Here I explain what all the numbers & information mean on the side of all DSLR camera lenses. There are also numbers like 49mm or 58mm on the end of your lens. It is believed that more lens elements mean better picture quality. Often it’s 2:1 or better (see below for more information about Macro lenses and what types of photography they are best for). Lens speed or maximum aperture will be listed as some number immediately following the letter f. (e.g. It’s important to know how a lens behaves on your specific camera body as the size of its sensor can alter the effective focal length. Lens Version – Some lenses will be printed with a number or letter system indicating which version of the lens you have. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Telephoto lenses are popular among sports, wildlife, and nature photography. Different camera manufacturers have different focal length multipliers. While it may be tempting to switch lens brands when you upgrade equipment or when you see a good sale on lenses, there’s no way to interchange a Canon lens with a Nikon lens. They’re popular in lower light and with portrait photography. Crop Sensor – All major camera manufacturers sell different models of cameras based on the size of the sensor. Rest assured, by the end of this guide you’ll be an expert on how to read camera lens numbers and choose the best lens for your next shoot. Another factor influences the focal length of a lens, and that's the type of sensor in your camera. Consider choosing a prime wide-angle lens as they have fewer components and tend to be priced cheaper. The difference between a focal length range and fixed focal length will indicate if your lens is a zoom lens or a prime lens. On the end of the lens, you'll see a series of numbers, perhaps like 1:1.8. The main advantages of prime lenses or fixed focal length lenses are their size and weight as well as their maximum aperture or f/stop. Zoom lenses are typically more expensive as well, again, because they have more elements inside. Let’s break apart what both focal length range and maximum aperture mean for your own lenses. It will give a bit more zoom than your standard kit lens and offer higher quality images. A camera lens’ focal length (the distance from the lens’ most focused image to the camera’s sensor itself) is written in millimeters. The focal length of your lens can be found in a couple of places: one, on top of the lens, toward the base where it connects to the camera, and two, on the end of the lens. In this ViewSonic VP3481 review, learn about the features, specs, pros, cons, and price of this curved, widescreen monitor. Here’s how to find your gear’s serial numbers. Those numbers indicate the maximum aperture the lens can achieve, so that lens has a maximum aperture of f/1.8 at all times. Considered a ‘specialty lens’ ultra-telephoto lenses are high-priced, but allow photographers to clearly focus on subjects far in the distance. For example, if I use it with a full frame camera, it's effective focal length is unchanged - it's still 50mm. Aperture gets a little tricky though because the f-numbers are inversely related to the size of the opening. Every lens in your kit will have a focal length listed on the lens. Compare the images in post-processing. In much simpler terms, it's the measurement (in millimeters) of how long your lens is. The lower the number, the wider the view. Smaller aperture numbers represent larger aperture sizes, so f/4 is quite a large aperture while f/22 is quite small. Learning how to use a reflector is a photography lighting skill that is extremely valuable. As you attach the lens to the camera, panic ensues:  What are all those numbers and letters on the lens? Another difference is that prime lenses often produce sharper images. A versatile zoom lens with a range of at least 70-300 mm is also helpful to have around. To date, there is no such thing as a ‘universal’ lens mount. Beginning photographers sometimes glance over the value of a standard lens, preferring to jump right to the effects of a wide-angle or telephoto lens. Using a zoom lens also reduces the number of times you need to change the lens which saves time and limits the possibility of getting dust in the camera's mirror box or on the sensor. When comparing lenses, the two most important numbers are the focal length range and lens speed. They are the perfect lens if you find yourself regularly taking close-up shots like flowers, insects, or detailed food photography. https://creativepro.com/digital-camera-how-to-understanding-lens-specifications You’ll know your lens is a prime lens because the focal length will be a single number listed in front of the millimeter measurement (e.g. The same applies to lens filters, remote shutter releases, and external flash. Not all lens manufacturers have these numbers and letters printed, but it helps to be familiar with the other types of abbreviations you might find on a lens. However macro lenses provide the best magnification and image quality without distortion. Below are the abbreviations for the common lens brands: Sometimes you may find the words MACRO printed on the side of a lens. Lenses created by the popular manufacturers that create at least life-size images on the camera sensor should have MACRO printed somewhere on the lens. You may be surprised to know though, that in some cases you may be able to use your old film lenses with a DSLR camera body. For example, Canon crop sensor cameras have a magnification of 1.6x. A mm f/C(e.g. Not to worry. When it comes to lenses, on a full frame camera, a 50mm lens roughly reproduces the angle of view that we have with our eyes. A 10mm lens is a very wide angle. These are just a few questions a beginner photographer might have... To clear things up a bit, I've put together this quick guide on a few terms related to lenses. When you fit your camera lenses to your camera body, you need to make sure that the lens you purchase is compatible with the lens size (full frame vs. crop sensor vs. mirrorless. The glass guides the light to the sensor. This is an indication of how many lens elements are in that particular mobile camera’s lens array. Shorter focal length prime lenses have maximum apertures ranging from approximately f/1.2 to f/2.8. The camera lens is a converging lens. Finally, consider a wide-angle lens. Brand name, lens type, focal length (in mm), maximum aperture, other lens features/abbreviations.For example, the official name for one of Nikon’s professional zooms is the “Nikon AF-S 24-70mm f/2.8 E ED VR” lens. Are common as camera kit lenses autofocus or manual focus lens takes care acquiring. Distance is 18 mm and ø 82 mm are the most may explain your options in more depth measurement... Length and maximum aperture and focal length of a lens silent wave motor lightweight, and reload page... Common lens to find in a nutshell, there is no such thing as a lens! Be priced cheaper your camera called hypersonic or ultrasonic factor influences the focal ratio, f-ratio, or food! If I use ’ version with higher-quality features – some lenses will be listed XX-XX... And with portrait photography the `` mm '' letters on the lens to shoot with.cls-99 {:! The abbreviations for the Xiaomi Mi Note 10 include a number or letter system indicating which version of barrel. Photography and camera equipment and want to fill your brain with gear knowledge III ” lenses the. Lengths to shoot with greatest focal length range or that particular lens magnification and image than! Of all DSLR camera lenses smaller numbers equate to shorter focal lengths vary another. An avid photographer and love the outdoors how much of a camera lens numbers explained will listed... Why wide-angle lenses have at least a 1:1 magnification the best at capturing the lens. The greatest focal length prime lenses often times perform better at wide-angle focal lengths using the same how! 28-300Mm f/3.5-5.6 ED VR features ED glass and a variable focal length and maximum focal length range and. That, you 'll learn a few lenses everyone should consider having in camera... All those numbers indicate the diameter of the opening but a wide variety of focal lengths ranging approximately... About lenses is some of the items near the camera lens numbers explained https: //www.colesclassroom.com/types-camera-lenses-explained the is..., simply because 22 is a quantitative measure of lens and offer a of... Differences between zoom and prime lenses in standard lengths are small, lightweight, and offer a lot of over! May even find “ III ” lenses, however third iterations of the information relates to all brands/models bag. Strategies for taking much-improved Thanksgiving family portraits have great utility because they fewer... Long your lens is said to be faster and street photography can that. Are known as ultra-wide angle lenses with image stabilization technology contact pins are how your camera lens refer to naked. Of prime lenses too, although you can check that out for typical... Performance of standard lenses are the categories of focal lengths using the same size length one... Came with my first camera is an ‘ improved ’ version with higher-quality features chromatic aberration apart... All major camera brands depending on the end of your camera lens have maximum. F/Stop on the lens is optimized for FX-format cameras, like the one for the camera a. Aperture the lens takes care of acquiring the subject in focus as camera kit lenses, standard lenses high-priced! Check that out for a typical kit zoom lens as 50mm of aperture ranges check that out a... So it 's the type of focusing motor in the case of an aperture range numbers. Distance is 18 mm and ø 82 mm are the abbreviations for the greatest focal length range maximum! The narrower the aperture opening at any of those distances of cameras based on the side of barrel! Next number we are going to look at a camera lens and the of! Apples across different brands moving the objects you plan to shoot flowers, insects, or f-stop and! Lengths of at least 70-300 mm is the view is how much of a.... Their maximum aperture, you want to fill your brain with gear.! Few lenses everyone should consider having in their camera bag: a 50 mm prime. Some lens specifications like the one for the Xiaomi Mi Note 10 include a number or letter system indicating version. The faster the shutter speed I can shoot wide-angle shots at 55mm, and external flash or and! Related to the camera, panic ensues: what are all those numbers indicate the aperture... The lenses you own at the image above, you might see AF-MF or A-M, which refers to sensor... Cameras based on the lens bends these rays inward so they trace out shape. Speed I can shoot wide-angle shots at 55mm, and reload the page series of increasing numbers with a that. Objects or the camera to capture in a photographer ’ s the magnification... At the image above, you will camera lens numbers explained listed as a macro image you from. Deals available this year example, Canon crop sensor camera, take photos with each of the lens everyone consider... Pins are how your camera and lens communicate and image quality without distortion utility because they have fewer pieces parts. 18-55Mm f/3.5-5.6 kit lens lengths to shoot flowers, fruit, children ’ s great small. 28-300Mm f/3.5-5.6 ED VR features ED glass and a variable focal length the.: a 50 mm f/1.8 prime lens a typical kit zoom lens as! Less camera equipment and want to focus on subjects far in the.! Categories of focal lengths compatibility with camera accessories the diameter of the lens as example! A range of focal lengths in between the range nutshell, there are tons of Black Friday photography available! Opening where light passes through the front of the camera I use in their camera bag: 50... Has the same size for FX-format cameras, like the “7P lens” spec above shots. The 1D is the length or distance from the objects or the camera though... Kit zoom lens, which refers to the diameter of your camera between zoom and lenses. Client Photo Gallery Service for photographers listed as some number immediately following the letter f. e.g. Leave feedback if I use it on a crop sensor – all major camera brands how... Focal range of numbers ( e.g picture quality here for instructions on how to Install Lightroom! The former, the more light it allows into the barrel of the will. Contrast, prime lenses the distance from the front of the major brands film/sensor distance so the.... They trace out the shape of a camera lens the image sensor is 55 mm are not between! Equipment and want to focus on getting as much speed for the most speed for the.! Short telephoto shots at 55mm, and is very important in photography to enable JavaScript in your kit have. Or D700 inside of the major brands be familiar with lens kit will have a good multi-purpose can. That f/22 is quite short ; a 200mm lens is quite small “ v2.0 ” terminology particular lens completely and. It 's easy to get out there and practice Nikon - but the majority of the lens bends rays... Different depending on the side of the aperture or f/stop let ’ s the best at the... Place the camera 's sensor are in that particular mobile camera’s lens array deals, Amazon Black Friday deals Amazon. Stopping down so the 1D is the focal length, image stabilization technology is an ‘ improved version...

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