classification of lipids in pharmacognosy

pharmacognosy ( lab) - intro to lipids. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) Strategies of Obtaining Improved Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. Alkaloids 3. O Three major subclasses are recognized: (a) Fats and oils which yield fatty acids and glycerol upon hydrolysis. The bonds between the molecules are covalent and are called Ester bonds. 2. cetyl alcohol[CH3(CH2)15OH]. It covers most of the subject matters of Pharmacognosy. Lipid, any of a diverse group of organic compounds including fats, oils, hormones, and certain components of membranes that are grouped together because … ). C Learn how your comment data is processed. For the convenience of documentation, study and storage all these smaller groups of crude drugs are again classified using either. Phosphoglyceride belong to a class of phospholipids. Triacylglycerol– are carboxylic acid triesters of glycerols. Well-known alkaloids include morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, and nicotine. Not only do lipids serve as highly reduced storage forms of energy, but they also play an intimate role in the structure of cell membrane and organellar membranes. GLYCOSIDES. H2C Know the factors that characterize a compound as being a lipid. Classification of Lipids Physical Properties of Lipids Chemical Properties of Lipids Special Features of Lipids Functions of Lipids ; 1. STUDY. Lecithins and and ciphalins … and alcohols, or of closely related derivatives. Marks’ basic medical biochemistry: A clinical approach. Lipids can be classified according to their hydrolysis products and according to similarities in their molecular structures. 6. • Lipids (fixed oils, fats, and waxes) are esters of long-chain fatty acids See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Triglyceride: 15. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Classification of crude drugs Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and ... lipids and volatile oils. Activators of enzymes eg. Lipids are major sources of energy in ani­mals and high lipid-containing seeds. As of this date, Scribd will manage your SlideShare account and any content you may have on SlideShare, and Scribd's General Terms of Use and Privacy Policy will apply. __________________ are a class of lipids that share the same basic ring structure - three fused 6-carbon atom rings and one 5-carbon atom ring. 14. This course aims at acquainting students with the basic knowledge of pharmacognosy science and medicinal plants used in pharmacy and therapy. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. 12. Biochemistry notes - Classification of Lipids - Differences between Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acid The term lipids actually refer to a collection of organic molecules of varying chemical composition. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. References Evans, W. C. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th ed. 8. ADVERTISEMENTS: Volatile oils are mixture of hydrocarbon terpenes, sesquiterpenes and polyterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives obtained from various parts of the plant. ... 1.1 Explain the concepts and principles of Pharmacognosy and Plant chemistry with Philippine Medicinal Plants. LIPIDS: The reaction results in the decolorization of the halogen solu­tion. They naturally occur in most plants, animals, microorganisms and are used as cell membrane components, energy storage molecules, insulation, and hormones. These differences in melting points reflect diffe­rences in the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids. Classification of Crude Drugs. 7. Lipids may be either liquids or non-crystalline solids at room temperature. • Since the fatty acids in these triglycerides contain the maximum possible For Medical and Paramedical students Simple, complex, derived and miscellaneous 1. a) Protein b) Lipids c) Mucoproteins d) Flavo proteins. drug. The amount of Br 2 or I 2 taken up will indicate the amount of unsaturation present in a particu­lar acid. The difference is on the basis of their physical states at room temperature. Unlike polysaccharides and proteins, lipids are not polymers—they lack a repea­ting monomeric unit. • In fixed oils and fats, glycerol combines with the fatty acids; 1. R It is customary to call a lipid a fat if it is solid at 25°C, and oil if it is a liquid at the same temperature. Since there are three a) Protein b) Glycoside c) Lipid d) Alkaloid. Lipids are hydrocarbon compounds present as structural components of cell membranes. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Choose from 193 different sets of classification of lipids flashcards on Quizlet. In this classification, lipids are divided into three groups: simple lipids (comprised of fats and waxes), compound lipids (inclusive of phospholipids and glycolipids), and derived lipids (inclusive of fatty acids, glycerol, and sterols, with cholesterol, bile acids, and vitamin D being examples of animal sterols). They are grouped together on the basis of their solubility in non polar solvents. Structure. Wax is an ester of long-chain alcohol (usually mono-hydroxy) and a fatty acid. • glycerol (a type of alcohol with a hydroxyl group on each of its three • three fatty acids joined by dehydration synthesis. Hydrolysis product of simple and compound lipids is called derived lipids. A fatty acid is saturated if every possible bond is made with a Hydrogen atom, such that there exist no C=C bonds. LIPIDS NOTES BY BILAL MALIK Ans. General Introduction, A) History, Definition and Scope of Pharmacognosy B) Traditional and Alternative System of Medicine. Systematic Pharmacognostic Study of Carbohydrates and Derived Products. Lipids are the substance of animal and plant origin. Lipids are made of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen, but have a much lower proportion of water than other molecules such as. Hydrolysis and oxidation reactions are responsible for causing rancidity. R'COOH and R"COOH can be all different, all the same, or only two the 2. Definition of Lipids: Lipids are a heterogeneous group of organic compounds that are important con­stituents of plant and animal tissues. Phenolic compounds 2.3. Classification of Crude Drugs. They include fatty acid, glycerol, sphingosine and steroid derivatives. C fatty acids attached, these are known as triglycerides. They are hydrophobic in nature therefore act as […] 2. A glycerol molecule is made up of three carbon atoms with a hydroxyl group attached to it and hydrogen atoms occupying the remaining positions. Oxidative rancidity occurs in triacylglycerols containing unsaturated fatty acids. amount of hydrogens, therefore are called saturated fats. Carbohydrates consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Fats … As volatile oil oils are responsible for the essence or odour of the plant they are also known […] Monounsaturated fatty acids have one C=C bond, and polyunsaturated have more than one C=C bond. biological drugs. In this classification, lipids are divided into three groups: simple lipids (comprised of fats and waxes), compound lipids (inclusive of phospholipids and glycolipids), and derived lipids (inclusive of fatty acids, glycerol, and sterols, with cholesterol, bile acids, and vitamin D being examples of animal sterols). Unsaturated fatty acids, on the other hand, do contain C=C bonds. Describe the structure of fatty acids and explain how saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acid structures differ from one another. Both types of com­pounds are called triacylglycerols because they are esters composed of three fatty acids joined to glycerol, trihydroxy alcohol. Pharmacognosy is the study about the physical, chemical, biochemical, and biological implications of natural products for medicinal or health benefit purposes. Liquid triglycerols (Oils) have high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids. 3. They occur widely in plant and animal kingdom. Plant Secretory Tissue. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. In this article we will discuss about the classification of lipids. bonded to the maximum number of hydrogens possible. natural. O This pharmacognosy blog has been designed to meet the requirements of the students of Degree and Diploma course in Pharmacy. ADVERTISEMENTS: The lipids are heterogeneous group of compounds related to the fatty acid and are insoluble in water but soluble in solvents such as ether, chloroform and benzene. Pure fats and oils are colorless, odorless, and tasteless. Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies explores a basic understanding of the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, their constituents and metabolites. Fats and oils are made from two kinds of molecules: O • where R, R', and R" are long alkyl chains; the three fatty acids RCOOH, LIPIDS Muhammad Tanveer Khan. Generally insoluble in water, Comprises of fixed oils, fats & waxes, Obtained by expression or extraction method. Apart from the gingerols ginger constitutes of 50-70% carbohydrates present as starch, 3-8% lipids which includes free fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic, palmitic, oleic, capric, lauric and myristic, triglycerides and lecithins. Soluble in organic solvents like alcohol, chloroform, acetone, benzene, etc. • The hydrocarbon chains in these fatty acids are, thus, fairly straight and Lipids are composed of oil and fat; high in energy and responsible for various bodily functions. LDL is important for the transport of fat molecules such as phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides … Lipids perform many functions, such as: Thank u so much!

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