Categories
Portfolio

hot composting in a barrel

A compost tumbler can be a great tool or a nightmare. A barrel will void any fluid in it when it is broken. This situation is not ideal for the composting process because it delays the breakdown of organic materials due to the lack of heat. At this temp, diseases are killed off, and elements break down quickly. The hardest part is simply … We show you how to build your own double barrel Compost bin. When selecting a manure for composting, be sure to use vegetarian manures rather than carnivore waste. endstream endobj 136 0 obj <>/Outlines 20 0 R/Metadata 30 0 R/Pages 29 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 32 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 137 0 obj <>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 138 0 obj <> endobj 139 0 obj <> endobj 140 0 obj <> endobj 141 0 obj <>stream If I could maintain a temperature … 0000004875 00000 n The barrel has a wide range of uses. 5. However, the bin holds more volume which partially accounts for the slower processing time. Ӵ��s5�ק���yw=�� �.+K�����!^�ͪ��~��/�� Gs��ML�����?�0��Y.M�)�꟫�7���vۤ��p�M{�V�_{o��zF��k���j�p�Y9M�Ҕ��Xf>4������g�����4�Y�+� When in the rain, the barrel will collect water. You can even use these high temperatures to heat your water, home or greenhouse. Moisture cooks out of the pile around the hot core, and may have to be replenished when you turn the pile. There is also “hot” and “cool” composting. Manure is a helpful ingredient when creating “hot” compost piles. Warning. Nov 23, 2020 - Explore Sheila Nalliannan's board "composting. If the conditions are right, active composting will increase the temperature of the bin to above 135 degrees Fahrenheit, which is too hot for many garden pests and plant diseases to survive. Hot Composting in 55 Gallon Drum - Knowledgebase Question. Add a mixture of green and brown ingredients to the barrel. If you are using food scraps you need to be able to turn your barrels so the compost can mix as you roll the barrel, usually this mean you have to have some type of scraper inside the barrel. If you don't, bury food scraps at least 10 inches in existing compost to limit the odors that attract scavengers. Toss in a handful of healthy garden soil or finished compost. This can include grass clippings, oak leaves, kitchen scraps, shredded newspaper, dryer lint, cow manure, horse manure and hay. It can be sped up by turning the compost, that is, moving around the material at the bottom of the heap to the top and vice versa to mix … What to put in a compost bin? Also, you'll find that the temperature won't rise again on tumbling, though you'll have to be sure that that's not just because the contents aren't moist enough for that to happen. Insulated with a close-fitting lid, hot composting bins are designed to allow decomposition at a much higher temperature and a higher speed (30-90 days, compared to around six months for ordinary compost) and result in a finer compost. The composting process, contained within the barrel, is activated with commercial starters, manure, already finished compost, garden soil or nothing at all. You get used to a rougher look and texture. Therefore, a little … Nothing I've read about composting has mentioned problems with getting it TOO hot. 0000009710 00000 n A hot compost pile can reach temperatures of 49-77 degrees Celsius (120-170 degrees Fahrenheit) in just a few days, and if you get it right, you can compost your organic matter in around four weeks. Wood barrels cannot accept hot fluids. Also, you'll find that the temperature won't rise again on tumbling, though you'll have to be sure that that's not just because the contents aren't moist enough for that to happen. However, the sliding plastic doors to the barrel can become frozen shut in winter weather, which has been a complaint of some users. Smaller pieces will break … Here are three composting tips to solve this problem: Buy two compost tumblers and fill one while the other bakes. The greatest enemy of composting in the winter season is the drops in temperature. How To Make Compost - Composting Process - Compost Methods (32) How To Make … I still have plenty of weeds that come from my compost. (See References 1). Throw a shovelful of dirt into your compost pile and mix the dirt in some. The best way to produce rich garden humus is to create a hot, or active, compost pile. Late summer is an ideal time to develop your hot composting skills, because you probably have plenty of material on hand, and warm temperatures will help the process along by limiting temperature loss from overnight cooling. Compost is ready to use when it looks dark and crumbly, a process that takes one to four months. Step 2: Parts and Pieces. <<03A78802382A444B87A03103454B43B5>]>> Temperatures between 90 degrees Fahrenheit and 140 degrees Fahrenheit indicate rapid decomposition. Confining your compost inside a container helps keep the pile from drying out, prevents scavengers from nabbing food scraps and makes turning and maintaining your compost easier. Pay attention to the compost as you aerate. They are roughly the size of a wheelie bin and can stand on a hard surface. Each row shows the pile before turning, the temperature before turning, a cross-section of the pile during turning (note the changes in … H�\�݊�@���}9s1D��U 0 If you just put your materials in the tumbler, they will … Most kitchen scraps, coffee grounds, and yard waste are suitable for composting. These composting tips will almost guarantee success. It heats your household and garden waste up to 60 degrees Celsius. Brown ingredients include dry materials such as straw,... 2. It can be sped up by turning the compost, that is, moving around the material at the bottom of the heap to the top and vice versa to mix … 0000004172 00000 n Throw a shovelful of dirt into your compost pile and mix the dirt in some. Then there is the Biolan.This Finnish design is really nothing but a big insulated barrel with no moving parts, no fans, nothing. Do not apply compost to your plants until cool. We had completely cured, ready-to-use compost in just a few weeks. A hot compost pile can reach temperatures of 49-77 degrees Celsius (120-170 degrees Fahrenheit) in just a few days, and if you get it right, you can compost your organic matter in around four weeks. Composting the Materials Start the reaction. 0000002792 00000 n If you want a compost bin, yet do not want to spend money on one from a store or home center, look around your home and garage. Place the wood box between the two barrels and fill it with compost materials – two parts brown to one part green and water. However, too much sun can also destroy the microbes and can even cause fire in the materials inside the tumbler. But also it is because the black plastic barrel captures heat from the sun. Heating is a very important step as it destroys pathogens. Regular “hot” composting may attract a few wild worms. … Lift the barrel unit from around the compost and set it beside the current compost heap. Compost tumblers are designed to speed the composting process by providing improved aeration and heat to the composting materials. Hot compost is a quick and easy way to get through your waste. There are hinged lids which can be opened and closed with one hand, as well as an additional sliding door to easily access the finished compost. It takes a full day to customize the drum and build the stand. 153 0 obj <>stream During the winter months, decomposition will be slower, but will quickly resume as temperatures rise in the spring. Hotbin composters work much faster at … Stone barrels can accept hot fluids. Above 30 the … The temperature of the pile must be monitored … So, You have decided to give it a go and build yourself a compost barrel. Adding fat, or greasy foods with heavy cooking oil to a pile is like putting a welcome mat out for pests. Understanding your composting needs will help you make the right decision when choosing which method is right for your homestead. This can include grass clippings, oak leaves, kitchen scraps, shredded newspaper, dryer lint, cow manure, horse manure and hay. Insulated Hot Compost Bins - Mark 2 Version. Greens include kitchen scraps, fresh grass clippings, livestock manures, coffee grounds and filters, and teabags. Transfer the compost back into the barrel with a garden fork, mixing it, breaking up clumps and adding water as needed. It is called “hot” because it can reach an internal temperature of 160°F (140°F is best) and “active” because it destroys, essentially by cooking, weed seeds and disease-causing organisms. Create your own compost in only 30-90 days. If you keep the compost turned, and can keep the temperature below 160F degrees, you can make quick compost and still preserve beneficial organisms. xref Once a compost item is in the barrel, it cannot be removed. Apt�����I��$�x��o��aVP������|w��vr�����qr�k�x��c�)^�. It heats your household and garden waste up to 60 degrees Celsius. The Hot Frog Tumbler Composter scored high marks in every category and is our top pick. Lastly, the problem of compost not heating up may simply be due to your compost pile being too small. 0000005664 00000 n DIY spinning composter::supplies needed and excellent how to construct. It is made from recycled, UV plastic that is rodent proof and absorbs heat well to help with the composting process. 0000003655 00000 n You might be surprised by what you already have that would make an effective compost bin. Capacity: 200 Litres. You should have fresh rich nutrient soil within two months. Any … There are no worms or bugs in the pile. You don’t have to stress about hitting the exact temperature because a healthy pile will take care of itself, but if you … Buy one of the dual compartment composters such as the Jora composter, or the Compost Twin. Bio char isn't going to help your compost, it is designed to be a layer in a field and it is more for bacteria and fungi than moisture. Stationary Barrel Units 1. Drill holes in your barrel to allow for air circulation. 0000006479 00000 n If you want compost in a hurry, a hot pile suits your style. Unfortunately, I had just emptied the most enriched soil when tilling the soil in my raised garden beds … 0000001541 00000 n Unfortunately, it doesn’t heat up enough to kill weed seeds. In addition, all of that fat and grease can cause extremely foul odors. Then grab the handles and rotate the drum several times in either direction to stir the mixture. With basic tools and materials, you … A toilet seat and ventilation assembly is placed on top of an empty barrel. *\ Open the barrel unit and reassess the moisture level, making adjustments as needed. Composting can be done in a barrel, on the ground, or in compost bins. methods" on Pinterest. All while … Immature compost can "burn" young plants. The main difference is in the setup of the composting bin or pile. 0000008890 00000 n Vermicomposting harnesses the power of worms to break down organic matter quickly. Mark 2 Version. Check moisture levels as you add new ingredients. To prevent sun damage in hotter climates, it is best to place the compost tumbler under partial shade where the sun can still reach the tumbler, but not so much that the heat will destroy the barrel or the compost inside. Your compost should be hot and steamy when you open the lid. Step 3: Compost Barrel Plans. How to Make Your Own Compost: A Beginner's Guide to Composting | Wisely Green . Also, you … We used agave nectar barrels and built our own version. The heat helps them work faster. We caution people to keep cat, dog and human feces out of compost bins where the end product will be used in vegetable gardens or where children play. The photo table below shows changes that occur when hot composting. Lastly, the problem of compost not heating up may simply be due to your compost pile being too small. Your role is to help the pile maintain high temperatures by monitoring it with a thermometer and turning all the material when the temperature cools. Chop or break up any large pieces you intend to add to the compost unit. Add to wish list . Fill your compost barrel with organic material. It really isn’t all that hard to learn how to make your own compost with just a little bit of knowledge. %PDF-1.4 %���� This composter should accelerate break down times and has a summer and winter function … Create your own compost in only 30-90 days. Marathon, IA. Barrel-type compost units come in two forms: stationary units that rest directly on the ground and rotating units that allow you to turn your compost in a matter of seconds. (in the cold weather i get a little lazy about carrying my scraps out, as it’s a good distance from the house) Obviously now it’s not doing much. There is also “hot” and “cool” composting. Water is the best form of moisture that works as a catalyst. If you have a lid on your barrel unit, you don't need to worry about vermin. Regular “hot” composting… The organic materials are broken down, as in the compost heap method, by zillions of microbes and other living organisms fueled by oxygen. ... both the open (hot) pile control and the tumblers yielded rich, finished compost in about 10 weeks” (ref 1). (See References 1). We performed a side-by-side comparison and found the tumbler finished off in about half the time of the bin. the-compost-gardener.com ... a surprising number of people end up with an expensive tumbler they have trouble turning and either a barrel full of material that hasn't rotted down at all or that is now full of a wet, stinking, rotting mess - that they can't somehow even get out of the composter because they … We liked the two chamber design that allowed one side to fill while the other cured. Never add meat or dairy products to your composter, as they will spoil and … Add a mixture of brown and green ingredients, adding one to two parts brown for every one part green. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Let your compost cure for an additional two weeks if you're going to apply it to growing plants. Capacity: 200 Litres. 0000000016 00000 n The bacteria found in the dirt will multiply and start helping the material in the compost pile break down and, thus, heat up the compost pile. Active composting methods require “turning” or mixing the ingredients with a pitchfork or special aerating tool. Compost tumblers are designed to speed the composting process by providing improved aeration and heat to the composting materials. #3 Fat / Grease / Oil . Solution: Turn pile frequently, adding water and browns to cool it down. trailer It consists right now of mostly leaves, straw, chicken manure, old pumpkins, and a few kitchen scraps. The space between the barrels is for the compost. As organic material breaks down into usable compost, the nutrients are unlocked into a form plants can use. Set your barrel up on a wooden platform in a location that receives direct sunlight. endstream endobj 152 0 obj <>/Size 135/Type/XRef>>stream ... As mentioned above, odor prevention in hot weather may require aeration several times per week. To prevent the compost from drying out or critters from raiding it, keep the barrel closed at all times. They heat up to temperatures of 120 to 170 degrees Fahrenheit (49 to 77 degrees Celsius) within 1 to 5 days, with 150 degrees Fahrenheit (66 degrees Celsius) being a typical peak. The Barrel Composting Toilet system utilizes 55-gallon high-density polyethylene barrels in a batch-type toilet system. The good news is it's easy to compost in a small space. Your pile may still get hot, however, and the other problem with a hot pile is that it can burn or kill your plants if not allowed to cool for a period. Compost matures faster if it is turned on a regular basis and compost tumblers are designed to make the turning process easy – you just turn the barrel. Step 3: Use a hot compost recipe. Regularly turn the barrel to thoroughly mix the pile. DIY Compost Barrel Step 1: Compost Barrel Build. Continue adding new materials --- both browns and greens --- as they become available. I'm planning on making my first serious attempt at building a compost bin this year but would also like to experiment with making a compost barrel out of a 55 gallon drum. You can use it to compost organics into dirt, transform one fluid into another, transform a fluid into a block with an item, and spawn mobs. Home compost barrel. Hot, or Active Composting. Hot container composting focuses on retaining the heat to increase decomposition rate and produce compost more quickly. The sun will heat up the contents in the barrel, helping them to decompose at a faster rate. startxref If you are using food scraps you need to be able to turn your barrels so the compost can mix as you roll the barrel, usually this mean you have to have some type of scraper inside the barrel. Cats and dogs are carnivores, and their wastes shouldn’t be composted. ... A barrel begins composting when a barrel reaches a solid amount of 1000. 0 �� While the basics of composting remain the same no matter what type of composting unit you use, the nitty-gritty details that help you obtain compost quickly vary considerably depending on the type of unit you use. Hot, or Active Composting The quickest way to produce rich garden humus is to create a hot, or active, compost pile. For example, a 55-gallon metal drum is the ideal size for holding a generous amount of composting materials for compost making. [�i���j���Ր����q���Н��,]�#ݼM��=m�������ı�.��������}��k�&�p��k�9}����5�|>�rh��vz��3�����+��%e꾉����Xu�����ٸ�=}6Y���[�c�s�����ËE�K�$/�� r ��+� Bio char isn't going to help your compost, it is designed to be a layer in a field and it is more for bacteria and fungi than moisture. 135 0 obj <> endobj Close the rotating barrel unit and rotate it several times. It's like Christmas morning when you open the bottom door of the compost bin to find the gift of beautiful dark rich soil just waiting to enrich your garden and flower beds. Check moisture levels as you add new ingredients. 0000008062 00000 n Turn the compost every one or two weeks for the fastest results. Our version of a compost barrel is an adaptation of that using a plastic 55-gallon drum. The compost pile must heat up to 130-150 degrees F and maintain the same temperature for 3 days. My barrel does get noticeably warmer than the outside air. If it appears moister than a wrung-out sponge, check the urine … 0000001130 00000 n For the best results, compost should feel damp to the touch, like a... 3. Hot compost is a quick and easy way to get through your waste. The Rapid Composting Method The author is Robert D. Raabe, Professor of Plant Pathology, Berkeley. The barrel top should be closed. Lay a metal wire bench top across the two barrels so they support it at both ends. 0000001997 00000 n Using the 70/30 rule, by weight, use approximately 70% brown and 30% green material. The Hot Frog Tumbler Composter scored high marks in every category and is our top pick. Regular composting, also known as cold composting, involves placing a variety of organic materials in a compost bin, enclosure, or even just in a large heap, and leaving it there until it breaks down several months later.It’s a very slow process and typically takes 6 to 12 months. Compost fires are extremely rare and are more likely to happen in industrial-sized compost piles. This barrel is known as the “active” barrel. 135 19 The compost tumbler drum and stand together cost about the same as the low-price models, but our composter is built stronger and has more features. In a hot compost pile, half the mass will eventually off-gas as carbon dioxide and water vapor. You get used to a rougher look and texture. 0000002552 00000 n BARREL COMPOSTING MADE EASY. Temperature? Always check the moisture level and break up any clumps you find. Keep the temperature in check using a compost … It is usually some kind of plastic barrel. Compost that has been through a hot composting phase is, arguably, ready to use, but it won't be broken down to the extent that you're used to. However, “hot” composting produces more heat than vermicomposting. See more ideas about compost, how to make compost, garden compost. 0000000676 00000 n This method requires a barrel of at least 55 gallons with a secure lid. Raccoon, mice, and yes, even rats are easily attracted to piles that are greasy and fatty. The beneficial microbes require moderately high temperatures to break down the pile into useful fertilizer. Temperature is a crucial factor in the winter composting process. Get a lidded bucket and layer your waste with some sawdust or shredded paper. �&��[��#��{��F~���p�������������=ك���敬`zzxzzzxz�y� ���|A�0_�/B0g f g f g f g f ;t"��W0;t"�DЉ�A'�N�v�I�g�g�g�g�g�g�g�g�g�g�g�g�[���E�|E�2_���W�+���|E�2_���Aуr�γؿ�e'�N��(:Qv��Dى�e'�N��:1���������o�7���������o�7�����r�E���b�%�Y+����iX���p�{^��1���Z�w[�v���3�K���� Rapid composting is favored by having a C/N ratio of ~30 or less. The sun will heat up the contents in the barrel, helping them to decompose at a faster rate. A barrel or drum composter can provide an easy mechanism for turning or mixing your compost. So let's learn how to compost with the 3 most common techniques for composting for the home gardener. For example, a 55-gallon metal drum is the ideal size for holding a generous amount of composting materials for compost making. The Barrel Composting Toilet system utilizes 55-gallon high-density polyethylene barrels in a batch-type toilet system. What is important to understand in this study is that the tumblers and the piles were turned at the … For the best results, compost should feel damp to the touch, like a wrung-out sponge (see References 2). Composting can be done in a barrel, on the ground, or in compost bins. Drop, Roll and Dump: Park your wheelbarrow under the drum and open the door. When you can no longer detect the original ingredients in the compost, and it looks dark in color, it's ready to use. Anything over 433 will not go into a wood barrel. 0000001278 00000 n It is easy to use and has a large, 37 gallon capacity. Learn how to create a compost trash can, as well as some tips to make the composting process go more smoothly. We performed a side-by-side comparison and found the tumbler finished off in about half the time of the bin. And with that in mind, it is always a good idea to keep your tomato plants out of the compost bin! Good for you!. �&����HN*�\?�z;9��. For every one part green that you add, you should add between one to two parts brown. The composting process, contained within the barrel, is activated with commercial starters, manure, already finished compost, garden soil or nothing at all. Regular composting, also known as cold composting, involves placing a variety of organic materials in a compost bin, enclosure, or even just in a large heap, and leaving it there until it breaks down several months later.It’s a very slow process and typically takes 6 to 12 months. If the conditions are right, active composting will increase the temperature of the bin to above 135 degrees Fahrenheit, which is too hot for many garden pests and plant diseases to survive. H�\��n�@���m�?�� ���dąo�9��MJ�|���w�%_o7��&�]��9�����]b���ې� Rotate the barrel at least once per week. A barrel or drum composter can provide an easy mechanism for turning or mixing your compost. %%EOF Any organic material will eventually break down on its own, but a compost bin helps to speed up the process by deliberately combining the necessary ingredients: organic material, moisture, oxygen, and bacteria. 0000003409 00000 n Food scraps compost heap. This method requires a barrel of at least 55 gallons with a secure lid. Having an understanding of how the process works and the materials needed is helpful also. Plants go on top of the wire bench. The organic materials are broken down, as in the compost heap method, by zillions of microbes and other living organisms fueled by oxygen. Composting is a process in which organic substances are reduced from large volumes of rapidly decomposable materials to small volumes of materials which continue to decompose slowly. in this process, the ratio of carbon to other elements is brought into balance, thus avoiding temporary … However…in the summer I also have trouble getting it hot! The bacteria found in the dirt will multiply and start helping the material in the compost pile break down and, thus, heat up the compost pile. Be sure your barrel was not used to store hazardous materials. Novice composters may want to track temperatures. Continue adding new materials as they become available. Description Reviews Questions Delivery & Returns. Some people let their compost go dormant during the winter, but you don’t stop producing kitchen scraps even if its winter so it is important to keep the composting process active all throughout the … Compost that has been through a hot composting phase is, arguably, ready to use, but it won't be broken down to the extent that you're used to. Both methods break down organic waste into fertilizer. Check the moisture level of the compost, adding water or dried brown ingredients until the compost feels moist but not sodden. Warning. We liked the two chamber design that allowed one side to fill while the other cured. Fill your compost barrel with organic material. With basic tools and materials, you … This is partially due to microbes creating heat. Putting the compost tumbler in the sun is important so the tumbler can collect heat. The temperature of the pile must be monitored … Add water to your compost, if needed, or dry out over-wet compost by adding additional brown ingredients. Item Amount; All Saplings: 125: All Leaves: 125: All Flowers: … If you want a compost bin, yet do not want to spend money on one from a store or home center, look around your home and garage. If your pile isn’t heating up, you may not have enough nitrogen or moisture. However, the bin holds more volume which partially accounts for the slower processing time. The Hotbin composter is a hot compost bin that works over 30 times faster than a regular compost bin. You can even use these high temperatures to heat your water, home or greenhouse. Materials in a compost pile. x�bb�f`b``Ń3΅� -�� The Hotbin composter is a hot compost bin that works over 30 times faster than a regular compost bin. Putting the compost tumbler in direct sun can speed up the composting process. Perched on a metal stand more than two feet off the ground, this tumbling composter helps to minimize the chances of rats invading your composting material. Water has a temperature of 300. Mark 2 Version One of the first things you learn in hot composting 101 is to check the temperature of your pile. Temperatures above 95 degrees Fahrenheit will kill Red Worms. Hot compost from tumbling compost bins. Fresh green ingredients are moist and provide microbes with nitrogen. When you combine the right ratio of used bedding and manure, you can now add moisture. This hot compost bin is made from 100% recycled materials and has a 280-litre capacity, which the manufacturer recommends as an ideal size for a family of four. How to Make Hot Compost Complete Guide - YouTube. It is called “hot” because it can reach an internal temperature of 160°F (140°F is best) and “active” because it destroys, essentially by cooking, weed seeds and disease-causing organisms. If the specs for a compost barrel say something like “easy to turn,” that means that it is designed for active composting, and you should mix the contents about once a week. Brown ingredients include dry materials such as straw, dead leaves, sawdust, cotton and wool rags, and paper that feed soil microbes with carbon. endstream endobj 142 0 obj <> endobj 143 0 obj <>stream I built a compost bin out of pallets…it’s three sided, with the front open for ease of access. Rotate the Compost Tumbler Daily: Screw the bung caps into the holes to prevent compost from leaking out. A toilet seat and ventilation assembly is placed on top of an empty barrel. Understanding your composting needs will help you make the right decision when choosing which method is right for your homestead. x�b```b``~��������ˀ �@1V ��p�I�C��x����e��Q�{ӌ8��r�~_s �/44��h��qGT#p30���@,�d�e/�>��[��\b۴L�����{r"l%��l� �A��]��"%/�4;�= -��Pv��~��p�����4#�0 ? Cows, … Right click the barrel to get a block out of the barrel. Question by rojohn December 14, 1997. Be sure your barrel was not used to store hazardous materials. You might be surprised by what you already have that would make an effective compost bin. Speed of the composting process. 0000000953 00000 n (See References 1), How to Convert Waste to Fertilizer Using a Compost Heap. Hot composting happens when the pile reaches 135 degrees Fahrenheit for a few days, achieving temperatures needed to kill garden pests and plant diseases. Rotating barrels tend to produce compost quickly, so you should expect finished compost in one to two months. The ideal temperature is 140 to 160 degrees Fahrenheit. Composting is an aerobic method (meaning that it requires the presence of air) of decomposing organic solid wastes. Janet, yes that should be fine, but … Add a mixture of green and brown ingredients to the barrel. Having an understanding of how the process works and the materials needed is helpful also. Collect and prepare the material*: Gather together enough "brown" and "green" material to fill your composter all at once. When the active barrel is full, it becomes an “aging” barrel. 0000007210 00000 n Even if all you have is a patio or balcony, you can effectively compost if you have room for a trash can.

Numbers 6 24-27 Esv, How To Cook Tilapia, Real Amethyst Rock, S10 Plus Price In Mauritius Telecom, James Martin Restaurant Whitby, Malibu Beach House Average Price,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.